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OPCs-research references


Research papers of polyphenols (and OPC)

Approximately 5,000 flavonoids and related antioxidant polyphenols have been identified in plants. They have a wide range of health benefits, including helping to promote healthy circulation and immune function. They also appear to regulate gene expression.*
Bors W. et al., "Flavonoids and polyphenols: chemistry and biology," in Handbook of Antioxidants. Cadenas E and Packer L, Des, New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1996:409-466.

Flavonoids and related polyphenols have diverse roles in health aside from their function as antioxidants. They exhibit vasodilatory and immune-stimulating effects.*

Rice-Evans al., "Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acids," Free Radical Biology &Medicine, 1996:20:933-956.

Diets high in flavonoids helped maintain healthy heart function.*

Hertog M, et al., "Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease: the Zutphen study," Lancet, 1996;156:637-642.
Keli SO, et al., "dietary flavonids, antioxidant vitamins, and incidence of stroke: the Zutphen study," Archives of Internal Medicine, 1996;156:637-642.

Pycnogenol is a powerful scavenger of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals.* Its particularly resistant to heat, which reduces the activity of many antioxidants.

Noda Y. et al., "Hydroxyl and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities of natural source antioxidants using the computerized JES-FR30 ESR spectrometer system," Biochemistry and Molecular Biology International, 1997;42:35-44.

Procyanidin Flavonoids derived from Pinus maritima are efficient quenchers of hydroxyl and single-oxygen free radicals, two of the most dangerous species of radicals.*

Pycnogenol protected skin cells from ultraviolet-induced lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity.* The protective effects were related to dose, with the highest concentration providing the greatest benefits.

Guochang A, "Ultraviolet radiation-induced oxidative stress in cultured human skin fibroblasts and antioxidant protection," Biological Research Reports from the University of Jyvaskyla, 1993;33: 1-86

        In a study comparing Pycnogenol and other flavonoids, researchers found that Pycnogenol   protected the eyes of mammals against free radical damage.*

Ueda T. et al., "preventive effect of natural and synthetic antioxidants on lipid peroxidation in the mammalian eye." Ophthalmic Research, 1996; 28:184-192.

Pycnogenol protected rat brain cells in vitro against the cell damaging effects of beta-amyloid protein.* ▀-amyloid protein is toxic to brain cells and generally believed to play a major role in Alzheimerĺs disease.

Rohdewald P, "Pycnogenol ," in Flavomoids in Health and Disease, Rice-Evans CA and Packer L, eds, New york: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1998: 405-419.

Pycnogenol scavenged superoxide free radicals and significantly decreased chemically induced inflammation in laboratory rats.*

Blazso G, et al., "Anti-inflammatory and superoxide radical scavenging activities of procyanidins containing extract from the bark of Pinus pinaster Sol. and its fraction," Pharm Pharmacol Letter, 1994;3: 217-220

Pycnigenol quenched nitric oxide, a free radical.

Virgili F, et al., "Procyanidins extracted from Pinus maritima (Pycnogenol): scavengers of free radical species and modulators of nitrogen monoxide metabolism in activated murine raw 267. 7 macrophages," Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 1998;24 1120-1129.
In cell-culture experiments, researchers found that Pycnogenol Protected vitamin E from free radical damage.
Virgili F, et al., "Procyanidins extracted from pine bark protect a-tocopherol in ECV 304 endothelial cells challenged by activated RAW 264.7 macrophages: role of nitric acid and peroxynitrate," FEBS Letters, 1998;431:315-318.
Using a new analytical technique, researchers found that Pycnogenol extended the lifetime of vitamin C by four times over normal values.
Cossins E, et al., "ESR studies of vitamin C regeneration. order of reactivity of natural source Phytochemical preparations," Biochemistry and Molecular Biology International, 1998; 45: 583-597.

Pycnogenol protects endothelial cells, which line the heart and blood vessels, from free radical damage.*

Rong Y, et al., "Pycnogenol protects vascular endothelial cells from t-butyl hydroperoxide induced oxidant injury." Biotechnology Therapeutics, 1994-1995; 5:117-126
Pycnogenol prevents the breakdown of elastin, a type of connective tissue, from free radical attack.* This action may partly explain why Pycnogenol helps strengthen blood vessels and other tissues, such as the skin.*
Tixier JM, et al., "Evidence by in vivo and in vitro studies that binding of pycnogenol to elastin affects its rate of degradation by elastases." Biochemical Pharmacology, 1984; 33:3933-3939
Using cells from blood vessels, researchers found that Pycnogenol enhanced
vasodilation- that is, the normal ability of blood vessels to relax.*
Fitzpatrick DF, et al., "Endothelium-dependent vascular effects of Pycnogenol, Journal Cardiovascular Pharmacology, 1008; 32:509-515
In laboratory experiments, Pycnogenol reduced the release of free radicals by white blood cells
Nelson AB, et al., "Pycnogenol inhibits macrophage oxidative burst, lipoprotein oxidation, and hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage," Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, 1998; 24:139-144

Oral intake of 360 mg of Pycnogenol significantly reduced edema in elderly women. In another study, intake of Pycnogenol eased the feeling of geaviness in 77.7 percent of subjects.*

Rohdewald P, "Pycnogenol," in Flavonoids in Health and Disease, Rice-Evans CA and Packer L., eds New York, Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1998: 405-419

In mice genetically bred to age prematurely, Pycnogenol supplements slowed age-related declines in immunity and blood-cell formation and restored these functions to more youthful levels.*

Liu FJ, et al., "Pycnogenol enhances immune and haemopoietec functions in senescence-accelerated mice," Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 1998;54: 1168-1172.

In experiments with lung and liver cells, Pycnogenol protected against changes induced by a compound found in tobacco smoke.*


Huynh HT and Teel RW, "Effects of Pycnogenol on the microsomal metabolism of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine NNK as a function of age," Cancer Letters, 1998;132: 135-139.

Caffeic and ferulic acids were effective in preventing free radical damage to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol.*

Castelluccil C, et al., "Differential distribution of ferulic acid to the major plasma constituents in relation to its potential as an antioxidant," Biochemical Journal, 1996;316: 691-694.

Caffeic acid spares vitamin E, allowing it to prevent the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol.*

Laranjimha J, et al., "Two related phenolic antioxidants with opposite effects on citamin Econtent in low density lipoproteins oxidized by ferrylmyogolbin: consumption vs regeneration," Archives of Biochemistry & Biophysics, 1995;323:373-381.

Ferulic acid reduced free radical levels in sperm and increased aperm motility and viability in both fertile and infertile men.*

Zheng R-L and Zhang H, "Effects of ferulic acid on fertile and asthenozoospermic infertile human sperm motiliy, viability, lipid peroxidation and cyclic nucleotides," Free Radical Biology & medicine, 1997;22: 581-586.

Caffeic acid and ferulic acid were found to maintain healthy immune function.*

Shahrzad S and Bitsch I, "Determination of some pharmacologically active phenolic acids in juice by high-performance liquid chromatography." Journal of Chromatography, 1996:223-231

In a study conducted at the National Cancer Institute, cinnamic acid helped maintain healthy cells.*

Liu L, et al., "Cinnamic acid: a natural with potential use in cancer intervention." International Journal of Cancer, 1995;62: 345-350.
Taxifolin protected mitochondria, the energy-producing organelles of cells, from free radical damage without any effect on enzyme activity.*
Haraguchi H, et al., "Protection against oxidative damage by dihydroflavonols in Engelhardtia chrysolepis" Bioscience, Biotechnology & Biochemistry 1996; 60:945-948
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