Dr. Mohammed Saad, associate professor, Division of Endocrinology, was interviewed on Aug. 8 by KNX Radio, the Los Angeles Times, La Opinion and KCAL-Channel 9 on UCLA's participation in a national diabetes study. The research showed that people at high-risk for developing type 2 diabetes can sharply reduce their risk through lifestyle changes, including diet and exercise. The study included a large number of participants from minority groups where diabetes is especially prevalent. UCLA was the largest site in the three-year study, which was funded by a number of agencies, including the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and the National Institutes of Health. "Lifestyle Called Key to Averting Diabetes"
What is diabetes?
Insulin - Why Don't I Have Enough?
- Taking Care Of Your Diabetes
- What Can Go Wrong?
More information and links
What is diabetes?
is a disease in which the body
does not produce or properly use insulin. Insulin is a hormone that is needed to convert sugar, starches and other food into energy needed for daily life. The cause of diabetes is a mystery, although both genetics and environmental factors such as
obesity and lack of exercise
appear to play roles.
is the impact of diabetes?
16 million people. Is a
leading cause of death and
disability. Costs $98 billion
of any age.
Most common in older
people, overweight and sedentary
African Americans, Alaska
Natives, American Indians, Asian
and Pacific Islander Americans,
and Hispanic Americans. People
with a family history of
are two major types of
- Type 1 - A disease in which the body
does not produce any insulin, most often occurring in children and young adults. People with Type 1 diabetes must take
daily insulin injections to stay alive. Type 1 diabetes accounts for 5 to 10 percent
Type 2 - A metabolic disorder
resulting from the body's
inability to make enough, or
properly use, insulin. It is the most common form of the disease. Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90 to 95 percent of diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes is nearing epidemic proportions, due to an
increased number of older Americans, and a greater prevalence of obesity and sedentary lifestyles.
1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in
children and young adults and was reviously known as juvenile diabetes. In Type 1 diabetes, the body does not produce
insulin. Insulin is necessary for
the body to be able to use sugar.
Sugar is the basic fuel for the
cells in the body, and insulin
takes the sugar from the blood
into the cells. When sugar builds
up in the blood instead of going
into cells, it can cause two
problems: Right away, your cells
may be starved for energy. Over
time, high blood sugar levels may
hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or
heart. Finding out you have diabetes is scary. But don't panic!
Sure, diabetes is serious.
But people with diabetes can live
long, healthy, happy lives. You
can too by taking good care of yourself.
- Why Don't I Have Enough?
pancreas, an organ near your
stomach, produces insulin.
The pancreas contains cells called
beta cells. Beta cells have a vital job: They make insulin, a hormone that
helps cells take in the sugar they
Sometimes, the beta cells
get wiped out and cannot produce
insulin anymore. Many things might have killed your beta cells, but in most people
with Type 1 diabetes, the immune
system makes a mistake. Cells that normally protect you from germs attack your beta cells instead. The beta cells die. Without
beta cells, you make no insulin.
Sugar builds up in your blood, and you get diabetes.
Care Of Your Diabetes
people with Type 1 diabetes live
long, healthy lives.
The key is keeping your blood
sugar levels within your target range, which can be done with meal planning, exercise and insulin. You will also need to check your
blood sugar levels regularly. To
check your blood sugar, you need a
drop of blood. Place the drop on a
special test strip. A device
called a glucose meter Tells how
much glucose the drop of blood
contains. Your health care provider will tell you how
often to check your blood sugar level.
people with Type 2 diabetes,
glucose (sugar) builds up
in the blood. But with treatment,
your blood sugar target
range shows that your treatment
plan is working
goal of treatment is to lower your
blood sugar and
your body's use of insulin.
good diabetes treatment plan
eating healthy and on
checking blood sugar
adjusting insulin as
blood sugar levels and
exercising regularly and
planning and getting regular
exercise can help your
body maintain healthy blood sugar
levels. If you're
fewer calories. Decide with your
health care pounds
is enough to bring diabetes under
about meal planning and exercise
Your Blood Sugar
addition to eating healthy, losing
weight and keeping fit,
check your blood sugar levels at
home to keep track
a drop of blood. Place the drop on
a special test strip.
A device called a glucose meter
health care provider will tell you
how often to check your
blood sugar. Write down each
result, along with the time
and date. You will soon learn how
well your treatment
plan is working, and you will
learn how exercise
and food affects you.
using a meal plan, losing weight
and being active
are not nough. In addition, your
doctor may have Your
doctor will probably try you on
diabetes pills first. But
sometimes pills don't work. Or
they work at first and
stop. When this happens, your
doctor may have
take both pills and insulin, or
maybe just insulin
Your doctor will tell you what
kind of insulin to
Can Go Wrong?
can cause three types of problems:
High blood sugar
Low blood sugar
Blood Sugar and Ketoacidosis
Blood Sugar (hyperglycemia) - When
levels get too high, the body gets
too little insulin or too much
of high blood sugar are:
blood sugar is treated by checking
sugar levels and giving your child
insulin. Untreated, high blood
sugar may develop into
ketoacidosis, a very serious
is caused by very high levels of
ketones in blood and urine.
Ketones are waste products that
build up when the body burns fat
for energy. Check with your health
care provider about when to do
ketone tests, especially
when your child is sick. Call your
health care povider immediately if
your child has ketones in their
urine or any of the following
treated promptly, ketoacidosis can
lead to a diabetic coma.
Blood Sugar (hypoglycemia) - When
blood sugar levels get too low -
the body gets too much insulin or
too little food. It is the most
common problem in children with
diabetes. Symptoms include:
blood sugar can be treated by
giving the child carbohydrates,
such as sugar cubes, hard candy,
fruit juice, regular soda,
followed by a snack of crackers
with cheese or
peanut butter, half a
sandwich, cereal with milk.
uncontrolled diabetes can cause
problems, such as amputation or blindness, keep your
blood sugar levels as close to
normal as possible. In addition to
taking your diabetes medicine, you
can have a positive influence on
your blood sugar and your health
by choosing foods wisely, staying
active and reducing your stress
best defense against complications
is taking good care of your diabetes. Keeping your blood sugar levels near
the normal range will make you
feel better now. And it will help you stay healthy in the future.
more information about type 1,
type 2, and gestational
well as diabetes research,
statistics, and education,
1-800-860-8747 or (301) 654-3327
following organizations also
distribute materials and support programs
for people with diabetes and
their families and friends:
American Association of
West Monroe, 4th Floor
1-800-832-6874 or (312) 424-2426
National Service Center
North Beauregard Street
1-800-342-2383 or (703) 549-1500
Wall Street, 19th Floor
York, NY 10005
1-800-223-1138 or (212) 785-9500
Products | Bio-medical
Research products | News