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Chitosan

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Chitosan-Fat Blocker
 
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Chitosan is a natural dietary fiber and is made from the shell of shrimps that were harvested from northern Atlantic Ocean, where has the least level of pollution.  The unique property of Chitosan makes it the effective fat blocker.  Chitosan can bind dietary fat and cholesterol. Each gram of Chitosan can bind equal amount of fat.  By binding with cholesterol, Chitosan can reduce the re-absorption of cholesterol of the bile acid.  The Chitosan bound dietary fats and cholesterol is excreted from body.  Chitosan also reduces the micelle formation of fat in the intestine and interferes the enzymatic interaction of pancreatic lipase with the fat.

 The following are the functionality of Chitosan and its biological effects in the digestive system:

Taken as a nutritional supplement, chitosan dissolves in the stomach and mixes with the dietary fat. Being a dietary fiber, chitosan increases the viscosity, giving a filling effect (1, 2).

From the stomach, the dietary fats are passed on to the small intestine, in the small intestine; bile acids are released and later reabsorbed.  Bile acids solubilize the fat and decrease the fat droplet size to what is called micelles.  Chitosan binds to the micelles and disturbs the structure of the fat-bile acid complex (3, 4).

 Pancreatic lipase is an enzyme also released in the small intestine, which breaks down micelle fat into free fatty acids and monoglycerids.

Chitosan partly inhibits this enzyme, and thereby reduces the fat digestion (5).

Bile acids mainly consist of cholesterol, and are normally reabsorbed in the small intestine.  In addition to binding fatty acids and monoglycerids, chitosan also binds bile acids (3,6).  Chitosan thereby directly reduces the uptake of cholesterol, reducing the total blood cholesterol level (7).  This process is called bile acid sequestration.

Chitosan with a high degree of deacetylation increases the capacity to bind dietary fat and bile acids.

Chitosan-bound fat and bile acids are excreted in the stool (2).

As a result, Chitosan reduces the digestion and absorption of the fats in the intestine.   Long-term use of this product will help to reduce both cholesterol and triglycerine in the blood and reduces the body overweight.  These results have been demonstrated in several clinical studies (8- 12).

This product contains Zinc, Magnesium and protein bound chromium and that both are very important minerals for the energy metabolism.  Chromium can increase the insulin sensitivity and can help to maintain normal energy metabolism especial the sugar metabolism (13, 14). Many research data have proved the effectiveness and the importance of Chromium, zinc and magnesium in normal energy metabolism. According to the research data, 90% of population in US might have insufficient daily intake of chromium.   This product contains 66% of Recommended Daily Amount (RDA) of chromium and 66% of zinc and 20% of RDA of magnesium. 

          Supplement Factors
          per serving: two capsules 
                                                                 Quantity                % DV

           Dietary fiber                             1.175 grams                           *
             Chitosan                                                     0.8 grams
             Apple pectin                                          0.375 grams
           Chromium (as chromium picolinate^       60 mcg            50% 
             or Protein bound Chromium)
           Zinc (as Zinc Oxide)                                     10 mg               66%      
           Magnesium (as Magnesium Oxide
             or chelated)                                                 75 mg               19%        
           Sodium                                         Very low (<5mg)               
                                    
          

        
          ^: Chromium Picolinate is licensed under US patent 33,988.                                     
*: Daily value not established.

         Reseal tightly after opening and keep in dry place.

References:

 1.      M. Sugano, S Watanabe, A, Kishi, M. Izume, and A, Ohtakara,     Hypocholesterolemic action of chitosans with different viscosity in rat, Lipids 23: 187 (1988).

2.      M. Sugano, T. Fujikawa, Y. HIratsuji, K. Nakashima, N. Fukuda, and Y. Hosegawa, A novel use of chitosan as a hypocholesterolemic agent in rats, Am.  J. Clin. Nutr. 33:787 (1980). 

3.       G. V. Vahoruny, S. Satchilhanandam, M. M. Cassidy, F. B. LIghtfoot, and I, Furda, Comparative effects of chitosan and choleslyamine on lymphatic absorption of lipids in the rat, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 38:278 (1983). 

4.      O. Kanauchi, K. lmasato, M. Shizukuishi, and E. Kobayashi, Mechanism for the inhibition of the inhibition of fat digestion by chitosan and for the synergistic effect of ascorbate,  Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.  59:786 (1995). 

5.      R. A. Muzzarelli, Human enzymatic activities related to the therapeutic activities related to the therapeutic administration of chitin derivatives, Cell Mol. Life Sc.  53: 131 (1997). 

6.      Nauss, Thompson and Nagyvary, The Binding of Micellar Lipids to Chitosan, Lipids 18:10 (1983). 

7.      l. lkeda, Y. Tomari, and M. Sugano, Interrelated effects of dietary fiber and fat on lymphatic cholesterol and triglyceride absorption in rats, J. Nutr.  119: 1383 (1989).

8.      D. J. Ormrod, C. C. Holmes. And T. E. Miller, Dietary chitosan inhibits hypercholesterolaemia and atherogenesis in the apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse model of atherosclerosis,  Atherosclerosis 138:329 (1998).

9.      S. B. Jing, L. Li, D. Ji. Y. Takiguchi, and T. Yamaguchi, Effect of chitosan on renal function in patients with chronic renal failure, J. Phorm. Pharmacol.  49:721 (1997).   

10.  E. Wuolijoki, T. Hirveol, and P. Ylitaol. Decrease in serum LDL cholesterol with microcrystalline chitosan,  Methods Find. Exp. Clin. Pharmacol.  21: 375 (1999). 

11.  G. Sciutto and P. Colombo. Lipid-lowering effect of chitosan dietary integrator and hypocaloric diet in obese subjects.  Acta Toxicol. Ther.  16 [4], 215-230, (1995).

12.  G. Macchi.  A new approach to the treatment of obesity: Chitosanís effect on body weight reduction and plasma cholesterol levels.  Acta Toxicol. Ther. 17 [4], 303-320.  (1996).

13.   Anderson RA, Polansky MM et al. Supplemental chromium effects on glucose, insuline, glucagons, and urinary chromium losses in subjects consuming controlled low-chromium diets, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 54:909-16, (1991)

14.   BW. Morris, S. MacNeil, K. Stanely, et al. the inter-relationship between   insulin and chromium in hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps in helthy volunteers,  J. of Endocrinology, 139:339, 1993

15.  AOAC (1990) Total Dietary Fiber in Food. Official Methods of Analysis, 15th edn. Vol 2. pp 1105-1106. Association of Official Analytical Chemists.  Virginia.

16.  Scott K J (1995). Encyclopedia of Food Science Food Technology and Nutrition, in Macrae R., Robinson R. K & Sadler M. J. (ed.), pp 844-847 Academy Press.  London

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